(Low Cortisol or an Adrenal Crisis – PDF of this blog.)
Many with Addison’s Disease, especially in the early years after diagnosis, don’t have a clear understanding of what an Adrenal Crisis is.
Some are very sick and believe it can be treated at home, others are low on cortisol and believe they urgently need Emergency Department treatments. It can be very hard to tell the difference at times.
Then we have the Dr’s view, based on books, not on experience, which is, don’t know so won’t treat.
- Low Cortisol WILL lead to an Adrenal Crisis, if not dealt with;
- Adrenal Crisis DOES need Emergency Medical Treatment;
- Adrenal Crisis WILL lead to Death (or worse) if not treated urgently and correctly;
- Dr’s DO cause Adrenal Crisis’ because they don’t know, or don’t listen to their patients.
I am guessing the first thing you are asking is “What is worse than Death?”
Quite simply it’s Permanent Brain Damage, Permanent Heart Damage, Permanent disability. Severe damage to other organs, and in many cases if you survive, PTSD.
An Adrenal Crisis can come on rapidly, or it can come on because you haven’t controlled the symptoms of low cortisol. It may be because you have an infection and don’t know. There are many reasons for cortisol being used up quickly in your body. Some of them obvious, some not so.
If you suffer a Genuine Adrenal Crisis and don’t get appropriate treatment fast, the ultimate outcome will be death.
Those with Adrenal Insufficiency and just as importantly, those who live with someone with Adrenal Insufficiency (Addison’s Disease) need to learn the difference in symptoms. And it isn’t something you can learn from a book because we are not all modelled on a book. We are all human, with different functioning ability in our body.
It is also hard because there is a point when symptoms of low cortisol and an impending adrenal crisis meet.
And it is these symptoms that cause confusion. If you can treat them by taking extra cortisol, then it is low cortisol. If you can’t resolve the symptoms with oral medication, then it is the beginnings of a crisis.
Click the image to see how the symptoms can present, and how they meet as you move from low cortisol to crisis. Most of these symptoms are not “in the book” as an adrenal crisis, and are not considered by many Dr’s as important enough to treat by bumping (updosing).
We all hear that if you have a major trauma, or vomit several times, or have a high temperature, inject. If you have to inject, go to hospital.
But what about those symptoms in Blue above? Should you be taking extra HC if you feel all or any of these symptoms. Some of them occur every day for some people. Other’s never experience them.
It’s always a guessing game. Do you Up Dose, Stress Dose, or Inject and race to hospital. What are these options?
To Updose is what Derek does when we are going out. He will also do it if he is doing something more than normal around the house. Perhaps he is going to help me do a little gardening or we are going to a Show, or out to Dinner. Or if he begins to feel a certain sort of tired. And here is the other problem. How do we know if he is just tired because he has done more than normal, or tired because he is low on cortisol.
There is no hard and fast rule. He had to learn to listen to his body. We know that when he is tired, he gets sore hips or starts yawning in a certain way. These are his first symptoms of low cortisol but it doesn’t mean he has to up dose. It may just mean he needs to sit and rest.
The biggest clue for Derek is if he can’t keep his eyes open, he feels weak, or he gets a mild gas he can’t shift. When this happens he will take an extra 2.5-5 mg of Hydrocortisone. He will then lay down to rest and the symptoms will normally resolve themselves.
If he suffers more painful gas under the ribs, has gas that doesn’t ease on burping, has a headache and feels “blah”, he will “Stress dose”. He will take 10-20 mg Hydrocortisone in one hit. He will also then try to get to a Dr within 24 hours to find out why he is that low.
I has taken almost 4 years to learn the difference between all his symptoms, and how to respond to each.
When new to Adrenal Insufficiency we asked each of Derek’s treating Dr’s, including his Endocrinologist, if the symptoms he had were AI related. The immediate response was no because it isn’t in the “book” as a symptom.
There is a belief within the medical community that If it’s not “in the book”, then it can’t be a symptom! In fact, you will not find any mention in medical books, about the concept of Updosing for minor stressors, or needing to take an extra 5 mg if you are going out somewhere. Yet those that do updose, have less need to Stress Dose or inject. That’s not to say the don’t do the latter two, they just appear to manage their illness a little better.
A good example of the need to updose to prevent the need to stress dose occurred recently. We went to a quiz evening at a pub. It takes 2 hours, and technically is a lot of stress free fun. Derek has been twice now. The first time he took 5 mg HC (2.5 mg more than normal) before going. The second night he didn’t.
By the end of the second night you could see he was suffering from low cortisol. He found it hard to move, was very stiff and sore in the hips, he was burping more than he should, his speech was quiet, and not “normal”, he was finding it hard to think clearly and he just wanted to go to sleep. By the time we got home it was all he could do to get into bed.
According to the books, and many Dr’s, there is no need to take extra for these types of activities.
The next morning he woke and was very sluggish. He found getting out of bed very hard and was not sure he would be able to work, but knew he had to. He had to push himself all day.
The result of not taking an extra 2.5 mg for the non stressful quiz, was several days of being sluggish, with no energy and feeling ill . That 2.5 mg, although small in relative terms of his daily dose, would have been enough to make it a fun night, and be able to function the next day. Not taking it meant he had to take things very easy work wise on Friday, and do nothing Saturday. If it had been earlier in the week, but the end of the week he would have been stress dosing rather than updosing.
Stress dosing is something that IS in the books. But it is not normally recommended until after you need it. The problem with that is, sometimes it is too late.
When Derek gets really bad gas that won’t shift, we know it is a good sign that something is wrong. After listening to the Dr’s, and ignoring it, and Derek ending up in Crisis in Hospital, we now take note of it.
This is when he will Stress Dose. He will take 10-20 mg in one hit. We will also either get an urgent appointment with his Dr, or I will take him to an after hours medical center, to get him checked over. He normally has an infection. He then continues with stress dosing for several days while most likely on antibiotics.
This gas, which the Dr’s have told him is NOT a symptom of an impending crisis, was the ONLY symptom he had before his last crisis. It’s not in the books, therefore it isn’t real, but they can’t explain why ignoring it leads to a crisis.
When Derek went into Crisis in 2014 his Endocrinologist said he didn’t understand why the crisis happened. Simply, we followed his advice and did as he said. We don’t make that mistake now.
Once you get to this point, your meds may stop working because your stomach becomes upset, and you stop absorbing your them. You are now on the steep slippery slope to full blown crisis.
If you have a full blown adrenal crisis, INJECT. Don’t wait until you fit the medical definition of dangerously low blood pressure, unconsciousness, or constant vomiting.
Derek vomited for 1 day when he had his worst crisis, but he was in crisis for a week before they worked out what was wrong.
The Medical books that describe Adrenal Crisis also describe Hypovolmeic shock.
Hypovolemic shock is an emergency condition in which severe blood or fluid loss makes the heart unable to pump enough blood to the body. This type of shock can cause many organs to stop working.Causes
The amount of circulating blood in your body may drop when you lose too many other body fluids. This can be due to:
• Excessive perspiration
Symptoms may include:
• Anxiety or agitation
• Cool, clammy skin
• Decreased or no urine output
• General weakness
• Pale skin color (pallor)
• Rapid breathing
• Sweating, moist skin
• UnconsciousnessThe greater and more rapid the blood loss, the more severe the symptoms of shock.
• Low blood pressure
• Low body temperature
• Rapid pulse, often weak and thread
|Acute adrenal crisis
Acute adrenal crisis is a life-threatening condition that occurs when there is not enough cortisol. This is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands.Causes of adrenal crisis include:
• Infection and other physical stress
• Injury to the adrenal or pituitary gland
• Stopping treatment too suddenly with glucocorticoid medicines
• Trauma (eg Burns)Symptoms
Symptoms and signs of adrenal crisis can include any of the following:
• Abdominal pain or flank pain
• Confusion, loss of consciousness, or coma
• Dizziness or light-headedness
• Fatigue, severe weakness
• High fever
• Loss of appetite
• Low blood pressure
• Nausea, vomiting
• Rapid heart rate
• Rapid respiratory rate
• Slow, sluggish movement
• Unusual and excessive sweating on face or palms
Dr’s treat hypovolemic shock as an incredibly serious recognised condition that must by given the highest priority. Yet Adrenal Crisis, which can have the same symptoms, and same outcome of Death, is frequently ignored.
Many Dr’s, especially in Emergency Departments, have read a book once, a long time ago, about Adrenal Insufficiency. The problem is, that book takes a long time to become medical education material. The studies must be done, published, then peer reviewed. It then has to be used when writing “the book” (which can take years), then the book must be published (which can take another couple of years). Once that has happened, it must be considered, and then accepted, as a good teaching tool.
By the time this has happened, there has already been better research, which is being peer reviewed, and published. That research then has to wait years for the next “book” to be produced or updated.
The information is already old before it goes in the Book. And Emergency Department Dr’s don’t read all the latest research when it comes out, if they did, they wouldn’t have time to work, so they skip over the specialist stuff that they were told in medical school they would never encounter.
Because many Dr’s don’t have the latest information, as the patient, you must have it. Join support groups so you can learn what is reliable, and what is old. Good support groups keep abreast of all new information and medical knowledge. Despite what Dr’s try and tell you, Dr Google can be your friend if used properly.
I have been in an emergency department and seen Dr’s use Google to find out about Derek’s conditions. Yet some of these same Dr’s repost around the Internet, that great sign below that we have all seen.
If you have the unfortunate pleasure of attending a hospital because you are in an Adrenal Crisis you may be lucky enough to be treated by a Dr that has heard of Adrenal Insufficiency. Unfortunately many do not get that lucky. They suffer at the hands of Drs who do not understand a crisis. Yet they understand shock. For this reason, you must know the difference between the three dosing styles.
UPDOSE – STRESS DOSE – INJECT
Learn your body’s signs and symptoms, and which option is needed. And don’t be afraid to use it.
Too much one day won’t kill you.
Too little in one day will.
If you’ve updosed, tried drinking something to increase your salt/electrolytes and you still have symptoms, then Stress Dose. If you take 10-20 mg and after an hour you still have the symptoms (especially the overlapping symptoms) then it is probably time to inject seek medical help. If you vomit twice and can’t keep medication down, inject and seek help urgently.